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Information>Nutrition Newsroom
Nut Consumption and Blood Lipid Levels

Nut Consumption and Blood Lipid Levels 

Background  Epidemiological studies have consistently associated nut consumption with reduced risk for coronary heart disease. Subsequently, many dietary intervention trials investigated the effects of nut consumption on blood lipid levels. The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of nut consumption on blood lipid levels and to examine whether different factors modify the effects.

 

 MethodsWe pooled individual primary data from 25 nut consumption trials conducted in 7 countries among 583 men andwomen with normolipidemia and hypercholesterolemia who were not taking lipid-lowering medications. In a pooled analysis, we used mixed linear models to assess the effects of nut consumption and the potential interactions.

 

 

Results With a mean daily consumption of 67 g of nuts, the following estimated mean reductions were achieved: totalcholesterol concentration (10.9 mg/dL [5.1% change]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) (10.2 mg/dL [7.4% change]), ratio of LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) (0.22 [8.3% change]), and ratio of total cholesterol concentration to HDL-C (0.24 [5.6% change]) (P < .001 for all) (to convert all cholesterol concentrations to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259). Triglyceride levels were reduced by 20.6 mg/dL (10.2%) in subjects with blood triglyceride levels of at least 150 mg/dL (P < .05) but not in those with lower levels (to convert triglyceride level to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0113). The effects of nut consumption were dose related, and different types of nuts had similar effects on blood lipid levels. The effects of nut consumption were significantly modified by LDL-C, body mass index, and diet type: the lipid-lowering effects of nut consumption were greatest among subjects with high baseline LDL-C and with low body mass index and among those consuming Western diets.

 

 

Conclusion Nut consumption improves blood lipid levels in a dose-related manner, particularly among subjects with higherLDL-C or with lower BMI.

 

 


Reference

Joan Sabate´, MD, DrPH; Keiji Oda, MA, MPH; Emilio Ros, MD, PhD.Nut Consumption and Blood Lipid Levels.Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(9):821-827

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Pistachios Increase Serum Antioxidants and Lower Serum Oxidized-LDL inHypercholesterolemic Adults

 Colin D. Kay, Sarah K. Gebauer, Sheila G. West, and Penny M. Kris-Etherton,Department of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Biobehavioral Health, and Integrative Biosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 

Abstract

Pistachios are high in lutein, b-carotene, and g-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDLcholesterol $2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32–63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d  63–126g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachioenriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P,0.0001), a-carotene, and b-carotene (P,0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P , 0.001) and g-tocopherol (P , 0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P , 0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P , 0.05). The change in oxidized- LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P , 0.005).After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and g-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = 20.36, P = 0.06 and r = 20.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain. J. Nutr. 140: 1093–1098, 2010. Reference: Colin D. Kay, Sarah K. Gebauer, Sheila G. West, and Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Pistachios Increase Serum Antioxidants and Lower Serum Oxidized-LDL in Hypercholesterolemic Adults J. Nutr. 140: 1093–1098, 2010.

 

Reference:

Colin D. Kay, Sarah K. Gebauer, Sheila G. West, and Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Pistachios Increase Serum Antioxidants and Lower Serum Oxidized-LDL in Hypercholesterolemic Adults J. Nutr. 140: 1093–1098, 2010.

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